Category Archives: Blogs


Aptly said, "The hand that rocks the cradle is the hand that rules the world"!! The women of science display a fine act of delicately balancing two ends of the fulcrum: a competitive work environment and a demanding family life. In fields of research, she has made her mark from scrambling the ocean floors to gazing at the universe. From teaching her child to say ABC to memorizing the H and He of the periodic table! Despite all odds, she has left no stone unturned. She is the superpower. She is and will always remain ‘INVINCIBLE’ ‘INCREDIBLE’ ‘INSPIRING’!!





Illustration by: Saketh Kapoor (Drawn in Adobe Illustrator)



New coronavirus (CoV) is
the recent talk of the town; novel coronavirus (nCoV) is a single-stranded RNA
virus that is creating havoc in East Asian countries, especially China.
Although the new type of coronavirus virus was first isolated on January 07, 2020,
the first incidence of the disease was reported on December 31, 2019, in Wuhan
City, the capital of China's Hubei province. The patient was reported with
pneumonia with unknown etiology.





As of January 26, 2020,
over 1,975 people have fallen sick due to this virus, including 56 deaths, and
the virus is now spreading rapidly. Few cases have been reported from Thailand,
Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and the Republic of Korea, where the travelers who
visited Wuhan City were detected at their respective airports by thermal
surveillance.





The virus can cause the
common cold, fever with chills, sore throat, and headache to more severe
diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute
respiratory syndrome (SARS). The disease is zoonotic, implicating that the
virus can spread between humans and animals. Animal to human transmission
occurs through the consumption of meat or animal products. That is why it’s
first transmission has been traced back to the wet markets of Wuhan that trade
exotic wild animal food and fish which has now been shut down.





It’s nothing new or
surprising that the transmission of the virus from animals to humans exists.
Earlier, the CoV which was responsible for SARS also traveled from bats to
exotic cats, which were again sold in exotic food markets. And the aftermath of
the epidemic of SARS is a well-documented tragedy. The genome sequencing of
nCoV has identified 96% similarity with that of the bat coronavirus.





In India, no case has been
reported so far as of January 26, 2020. However, as per some media reports,
around 100 people have been kept under observation. And specimen from 7 people
with mild respiratory symptoms who have traveled from China has been sent for
investigations to the National Institute of Virology, Pune.





No drug or vaccine has
been shown to be effective against coronavirus in humans so far. It has been
reported that the nCoV and SARS CoV binds to the same receptor on human cells.
Therefore, scientists are trying to block the receptors on human cells by which
the virus finds its way to infect the human body.





Having said all this, one
must follow the basic safety practices such as washing hands with soap,
especially after returning from crowded places or any fish/animal market. Avoid
any kind of close contact with people suffering from respiratory infections. Do
not panic by reading any social media reports and let experts do the rest.





Further readings:

























Image source: https://media.nature.com/lw800/magazine-assets/d41586-020-00190-6/d41586-020-00190-6_17590326.jpg


 

“Unity and co-ordination” are the two key mantras for designing a successful system or organization. Co-ordination can be achieved by forming healthy interactions between the constituent elements of the system. Interacting elements form a network and proper interaction results in the efficient flow of information or flux to achieve a particular target. So, proper networking among the constituents plays a crucial role in the success of that organization.

The essence of networking is beautifully explained by some of the well-organized systems exists in nature. Flashing pattern of light by a group of firefly may seem meaningless to us, however, it is actually their license to find a mating partner. Female firefly responds to their conspecific male partner by the synchronous flashing. A shoal formed by a group of fish is another example of nature driven network. Movement of individual fish in such a group may look like a random one while the complete system tells us how well they are coordinating with each other. Similarly, focusing on the movement of individual ant or starling may not provide much information, however, studying the movement of a group of ants or starlings can help to discover the beautiful formation of marching ants in a straight line or a murmuration of thousands of starlings. These individual elements formed a network and practiced to co-ordinate with each other to successfully build such organizations.

The list of biological metaphors for networks is huge, be it in macroscopic (organism) level to the microscopic (genes, proteins, or metabolites) level. We live in a society and interact with each other with different kind of relationships. Some of the relationships are bi-directional such as a friend, foe or unidirectional like being a fan or follower of someone. Friendship and love are some of the positive interaction exist around us whereas foe, hatred are some of the negative interactions added to such a network. Being in a society, we all are coordinating and managing these positive and negative interactions to maintain harmony in our surrounding. In the current scenario, we can clearly see and feel the network around us, and all credit goes to the growing social networking.

Protein-protein interaction, regulation of genes by transcription factors are some of the well known microscopic network present in the body. Like that of networks at the macroscopic level, we also experience positive and negative interactions at the microscopic level. Considering an instance of Gene Regulatory Network (GRN), where genes and the regulatory factors are the elements of the network, enhancing the gene expression can be considered as positive interaction whereas inhibition of gene expression is a negative interaction.

To understand the function of a system, it is important to understand the structure of the system. “System biology” is an emerging area where it entertains the systems level understanding of any functional organization. A system can be modeled into a network using the concepts of graph theory. Nodes represent the elements of the system while edges denote the interaction exists between the two nodes or elements. Studying various properties of the network helps in better understanding of the system and its behavior in various conditions. Studies have shown the existence of well co-ordination between the elements of the successful system.

These systems-level studies reiterate the essence of the well said proverb “United we stand, divided we fall”. This holds true for every functional system, be a macroscopic or microscopic one.

Written by:  



Mr. Santosh Kumar Behera, DBT-BINC, Junior Research Fellow, Centre for Systems Biology and Molecular Medicine, Yenepoya Research Centre, Yenepoya (Deemed to be University), Mangalore-575018, Karnataka, India.

 

 

 

Artwork: Ms. Nupur Agarwal

Edited by: Mr. Saketh Kapoor and Mr. Jagdish k

 
Regenerative Medicine is the baby of “Stem Cells and Developmental Biology” and  Regenerative biology precedes Regenerative Medicine. The term, “Regenerative Medicine” is in high demand now to regenerate damaged or diseased parts of the human body. Well, with special emphasis to the human body, is it possible to regenerate every part or any part by hook or crook or else, spontaneously when severed?

Have you heard of any creature that can help regenerate its head along with the brain when severed?

The spontaneous answers are:

  • Yes, must be some mythological character that could do so, or,

  • No, organisms such as salamanders, lizards can regenerate limb bud and tail, but reviving severed head must be an impossible task


Interestingly, some creatures on the earth can regenerate their heads when severed. These are several species of marine ribbon worms.

Regeneration of posterior end such as tails when severed has been well documented in stem cells and regenerative biology research in salamanders and lizards. However, head regeneration/anterior part of the body usually are impossible because the brain is the master regulator of all the physiological, metabolical and developmental processes. Recently, 22 species in the invertebrate phylum ‘Nemertea’ have been tested for the regeneration of both heads and tails. Out of these 22 species, 5 species are even adapted to regenerate heads when decapitated. As per the evolutionary reports, the species Lineus sanguineus has evolved the ability to regenerate its head about 10-15 million years ago that might be the reason of non- extinction of this species till date. Considering the existence of Lineus sanguineus, the species Homo sapiens are much recent in the history of evolution!

Although this work was carried out by Zattara and the team at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C. USA, the work focused on evolutionary biology, rather than regenerative and stem cells biology. Hence, the head regeneration in Lineus sanguineus is likely to provide definitive cues to the stem cell-developmental and regenerative biologists for deciphering novel factors involved in difficult-to-regenerate parts of the body.

Image Description: Photograph of marine ribbon worm (Lineus sanguineus) has been shown to regenerate its head. Top panel shows the photographs taken 4 days after the head was cut off and the bottom panel shows the photograph taken 15 days after decapitation. The head has grown back 15 days after decapitation. Image/Experimentation credit: Eduardo E. Zattara

Reference: Zattara, E. E., Fernandez-Alvarez, F. A., Hiebert, T. C., Bely, A. E., & Norenburg, J. L. (2018). A phylum-wide survey reveals multiple independent gains of head regeneration ability in Nemertea. bioRxiv, 439497.

Written by: 



Dr. Bipasha Bose, Associate Professor, Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Centre, Yenepoya Research Centre, Yenepoya (Deemed to be University), Mangalore-575018, Karnataka, India.
Professor Bradley’s group in Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, UK recently reported that CRISPR-Cas9 led gene editing can lead to potential DNA damage by introducing unwanted large-scale deletions and complex rearrangements. The work which was done on cell lines derived from human and mouse have shown that this technique creates extensive DNA damage. The study was published recently in the scientific journal Nature Biotechnology. So the major implications will be that the CRISPR based therapies may not be as useful to treat diseases as we may have been thought earlier.

Two other studies which were published two months ago in the scientific journal Nature Medicine, one from the Karolinska Institute Sweden and the other from the company Novartis showed concerns that CRISPR/Cas9 editing can induce cancer.  So the promise of using this technique in clinical trials for blood-related disorders such as hemophilia, sickle cell anemia, and Beta-Thalassemia, and other disorders such as Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy which are potential candidate for gene editing could be delayed because of the astonishing results reported.

CRISPR, short for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats system is based on the defense mechanism used by bacteria to protect themselves against the invading viruses. The Cas9 protein which acts as molecular scissors cleaves the virus genetic material and protects the bacteria. The bacteria also store the fragmented virus genetic material, which acts as a guide for the future attack by the same virus.

The system has been tweaked by scientists to be used as a gene editing tool. So in simple terms, CRISPR/Cas9 is a genome-editing technique which cuts/breaks the DNA at a specific site(s) with the help of a guide RNA which is associated with Cas9 protein. The cell repair system then adds the new DNA at the cut site thereby activating or deactivating gene(s) to treat a certain condition.

More recently, a team from the University of Illinois invented CRISPR-SKIP technique where instead of cutting the DNA, the machinery actually causes the region of DNA to be “skipped”. Since we know that DNA contains exons (the coding regions) and introns (the non-coding regions). When the cell transcribes the gene into RNA, all the exons are stitched together which is to be used for protein synthesis. The stitching of exons happens due to the presence of specific base sequence at the start and end of each exon. CRISPR-SKIP modifies these specific base sequence, leading to exon skipping and thus the exon gets ignored during protein synthesis.

Due to the stupendous scope of its application, CRISPR was eventually touted as an ultimate method for editing genes. Treating genetic disorders and cancer, improving crop yields, reviving extinct mammals and producing designer babies are only a minuscule portion of the portrayed promises made by scientists. What eventually followed was a massive patent war between two teams. Having tested the CRISPR gene editing potential in a cell-free system, Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier of U.C. Berkeley and the University of Vienna, respectively filed a patent application in the year 2012. Another patent was filed by Feng Zhang from the Broad Institute (collaboration between MIT and Harvard) in 2014. This team filed for the patent in using CRISPR in editing eukaryotic genes. Having applied through a fast-track process of review, the latter team was first awarded the patent. U.C. Berkeley and the University of Vienna appealed against this decision and claimed an ‘interference proceeding’. Stating that the claims made by the Broad Institute were ‘non-obvious’ and unique in its own right, a federal appeals court upheld the judgment passed by Patent Trial and Appeal Board in favor of the Broad Institute on September 10, 2018.

Having mentioned the flaws such as off-targets effects and unwanted DNA damage by various studies, this technique has a lot of outstanding potential in the scientific field. Since the CRISPR/Cas9 technique has progressed very quickly over the years, it is important to understand the reliability and after-effects of this technique.

Written by: 



Saketh Kapoor, Graduate student, Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Centre, Yenepoya Research Centre, Yenepoya (Deemed to be University), Mangalore-575018, Karnataka, India.

 

 

Artwork: Saketh Kapoor and Dr. Pratigya Subba

Edited by: Dr. Raghu Bhushan

 

 

 

Did you know? More than 5000 people in India die every year due to Leptospirosis or Rat Fever. It mainly affects people who come in contact with contaminated soil or water during floods. Leptospirosis cases have seen to be elevated during the rainy season due to exposure to contaminated water and soil.


Rat Fever is caused by a spirochete named Leptospira. Surprisingly it’s been more than 100 years since the discovery of this bacterium yet, no rapid diagnostic tools are available. This is mainly due to the slow growth rate in culture media, laborious detection and can only be performed in reference labs with all the serovars. Interestingly, this bacterium does not only infect humans but also a variety of organisms like hamsters, swine, other rodents and cattle animals which act as carriers.


Mode of infection is through the urine of infected animals, which shed the spirochete microbes into water or soil. The bacteria can enter the body through the injured skin or mucous membranes. Drinking contaminated water can also cause infection (Refer the schematic diagram).


Is it really dangerous? Typical symptomatic human Leptospirosis shows symptoms like dengue and malarial fever (so if your doctor says no Dengue or Malaria, it can be Leptospirosis!). The severity of the disease ranges from chronic fever, cough, headache, chills, and conjunctivitis to acute meningitis, extreme fatigue, respiratory distress and some severe cases like pulmonary haemorrhage, myocarditis, renal failure, uveitis and even death.


Rat fever can be prevented by consuming a prophylactic antibiotic as prescribed by the Physicians. Vaccination of the farm animals is necessary as this is another source of transmission. Simple practices like practicing good self-sanitization, avoiding swimming in the infected animal urine contaminated water bodies, avoiding direct contact with the mud or fresh water during a flood can save you from getting the Rat fever.


With fallout of severe floods in the states of Kerala and Karnataka, there is an earnest appeal for all the rescue team members helping out distressed people; Kindly make sure to incorporate all the necessary precautions like wearing the gloves, boots and take prophylactic drugs to avoid the risk of contracting Leptospirosis infection as it could get more serious in flood-affected areas. For the people who are already exposed to the conditions, kindly consult medical team deployed at the relief sites to avoid further complications, and also advise for the same to the affected people.


“Stay hygienic, Stay safe”


Written by: Mr. Mohammed Tarique, Technical Research Assistant (ICMR Project), Yenepoya Research Centre, Yenepoya (Deemed to be University), Mangalore-575018, Karnataka, India.

Artwork: Mr. Mohammed Tarique and Mr. Utsav Sen

Edited by: Mr. Jagdish k and Mrs. Saptami U. Kanekar
In our daily life, we are frequently being told that happiness is either relative or an illusion. Some of us will not agree with this statement, some of us will say yes, and we have also experienced the happiness positively. We often find ourselves oscillate between happy and unhappy moments and realize that in fact, there is no permanent state of mind. In other words, “Change is the only constant”.

It seems that happiness is the ultimate goal or achievement of our life. Our childhood was spent having lots of fun and happiness at that time meant self-gratification. As we grew, making our parents proud gave that happiness. Gradually it got extended to our boss, life partner and kids making them happy in whatever ways it demanded. . . But this pursuit of happiness has left us in an elusive approach of chasing a mirage of so-called happiness which happens to be a crucial and ever-increasing need in every moment of our lives

What is Happiness? Why is this so important in our life? Let’s understand a scientific basis of this happiness on contrary to more of philosophical views so far. While philosophically true happiness has a different definition for each of us, science can give us a clear picture of the prevailing factors that lead to the state if being happy. There are thousands of factors involved in our happiness; from the food we eat to bed, we sleep in room temperature, which plays a role to regulate our temper and in turn, the complex functionalities of our brain. . . Understanding these factors which are related to our happiness will help us to know about our temporary state of mind.

Mechanisms that are responsible for the happy mood are very interesting though. Researchers revealed human behaviors in novel ways that weren't studied earlier. With their knowledge and advanced technology at their disposition, scientists were able to discover what goes on into our body when we experience happiness. Studies were also carried out in the area of the human brain that is responsible for happiness and positive memories as well as the neurotransmitters involved like Serotonin. In the human central nervous system (CNS), this neurotransmitter connects nerve cells and is associated with a feeling of happiness or decreased anxiety. Serotonin is a significant part of many popular drug treatments for depression and anxiety. It helps to regulate essential human functions like; learning, mood, sleep, sexuality, appetite.

Another neurotransmitter is Dopamine which is both a neurotransmitter and a neurohormone that is produced in several different areas of the brain. Dopamine is mostly associated with the "pleasure system' of the brain, providing feelings of enjoyment and motivating us to do or not to do or continue doing some activities. Assuredly, this neurotransmitter is released by naturally occurring events such as food, abuse of drugs, sex and neutral stimuli that become with them. Dopamine is often touted as a ‘reward chemical’ or part of the brain’s ‘Reward center'.  Apart from this, dopamine rewards us by regulating some critical functions such as feelings after punishment, movement, motivation, and attention, emotional responses, working memory, etc.

So if you are curious about the science of happiness, Check out your status and you will discover what it is that contributes to your Happiness...... Meet Your Happy Chemicals - BE Happy & Make Others Happy!!!

Written by:

Mr. Utsav Sen, ICMR-Senior Research Fellow, Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Centre, Yenepoya Research Centre, Yenepoya (Deemed to be University), Mangalore-575018, Karnataka, India.

 

 

Edited by: Mr. Jagdish k and Mr. Saketh Kapoor
We all are gifted naturally with immense potential for excellence. A conscious living leads to a conscious will, that is what we call is willpower. Conscious living releases so much of the latent energy that energizes our entire being to do so much. Then, where is the question of mediocrity or non-performance??? Intrigued, isn’t it!!!

The crux of the matter is how you spend your 6 pm to 9 am every single day decides how productive your 9 am to 6 pm will be. I am serious and not joking. I would request each of you who are reading this blog, to reflect upon yourselves and think how you have been spending your 6 pm to 9 am every day. You do not have to go much far in the past, but a week’s data should be sufficient to indicate the levels of your productivity, in other words, your commitment to excellence.

Well, I know the answer most of you will be having. Some of the typical answers are:

  1. I am so very exhausted at the end of the day that, I freshen up and just couch with my cell phone at 6 pm and try to relax. Then, I realize it is dinner time. 3-4 hours fly off.

  2. I am so very exhausted at the end of the day that, I freshen up and just switch on the TV at 6 pm as soon as I reach home and try unwinding. Then, I realize it is dinner time. 3-4 hours fly off.

  3. I am so very exhausted at the end of the day that I need to get busy with the household chores such as homework of children. Then, I realize it is dinner time. 3-4 hours fly off.

  4. Well, I just do things such as talking on the phone, having dinner and going to bed.

  5. I go to eat out sometimes and come home late followed by sleep. 3-4 hours fly off.

  6. I switch on my computer to study something and often get distracted and end up watching a movie or entertaining videos on YouTube. 3-4 hours fly off.


Some of the uncommon answers are:

  1. I go home, freshen up and go to the gym or go for a walk without my cell phone or any distraction before taking to anyone or getting busy with routine chores.

  2. I go home, freshen up, and sit alone reflecting upon how I had spent my day. I write down the accountability to myself for betterment before taking to anyone or getting busy with routine chores.

  3. I go home, freshen up and remind myself that I am mortal and I need to live my every moment productively, reflect upon how I had spent my day and do better tomorrow. All of these I do before taking to anyone or getting busy with the chores.

  4. I go home freshen up, do some yoga and meditation and self-reflection before taking to anyone or getting busy with the chores.


I understand that it takes a tremendous amount of willpower to practice what the uncommon answers correspond to and that too at the end of the day. However, the good news is that you do not need to spend the entire evening doing yoga, going for a walk, meditating, working out in the gym and reflecting on oneself. One can spend just an hour doing it and feel so much energized, focused with high levels of endorphins. Also, you will have an excellent sleep in the night. Very simple, isn’t it. Your commitment to yourself means to spend time for yourself, not much, just an hour every day (morning or evening) being with yourself, meditating, exercising and reflecting. Most important, make this a regular habit. You will be surprised to find the new scientific ideas flowing through your mind just after these precious moments with yourself. Pen them down immediately. This commitment to yourself will keep you energized as similar to an oasis in a desert before the entire world tears you apart with mediocrity.

The attitude should be: I promise to give quality time to myself because I am committed to excellence. Of course, I do not need to show off my superiority to the entire world around me. Instead, it becomes evident as I reflect more energy, more positivity, and more happiness. That creates an impact on the world around me. I do not compete with anyone; instead, I run my race to give more to myself. It is important to remind oneself that, “I have more energy to do what I am doing today and I am meant for doing more.” Efficiency and productivity are none other than excellence.
If we all practice this small exercise for one hour every day, we all can impact the world around us with excellence rather than being a little clod of mediocrity.

Happy reading!

With respect and love to all the readers of this blog.

Written by:

Dr. Bipasha Bose, Associate Professor, Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Centre, Yenepoya Research Centre, Yenepoya (Deemed to be University), Mangalore-575018, Karnataka, India.

 

 

 

Photo courtesy and Artwork by:

Mr. Utsav Sen, ICMR-Senior Research Fellow, Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Centre, Yenepoya Research Centre, Yenepoya (Deemed to be University), Mangalore-575018, Karnataka, India.
Human body is a well-known niche for trillions of microbes outreaching a number ten times higher than own cells. Some of the well-studied microbial niches are the ones that are found on/inside the human body. For instance, skin, mouth, gut, lungs and respiratory tract, vagina etc. These microbes have beneficial and harmful effects and is of great interest in relation to health and disease. The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) was established in 2008 with the aim to characterize microbiome and to analyze its role in human health. June 27th, 2018 was called as “World Microbiome Day” initiated by APC Microbiome, Ireland.

On constant exposure to the environment from the time of birth over the years build up the whole microbiome. The human microbiome is comprised of numerous classes of microbes; some of which are ‘good’, some being ‘harmful’ and some are ‘essential for the good’ ones. The beneficial function of microbiome has been well established; they take part in the metabolism, building immunity, extracting energy, managing appetite, keeping the general homeostasis of the body and supplying vitamins. Multiple factors like antibiotics, diet, age, stress, human genetics and environment may alter the microbiome. The microbial imbalance is known to be associated with various diseases related to metabolism, respiration, infection, liver and gastrointestinal cancers. Not only these conditions but also the physique and mental health are associated with a healthy microbiome. Besides, their association is also found in obesity, malnutrition, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Microbiome analyses are the new phase of diagnostics that provide an advanced understanding of disease progression and treatment. In today’s world, we have been using microbial supplements in the form of probiotics. Probably in the near future, every disease associated with microbiota may have a prebiotic or probiotic treatment as one of the options. There isn’t a clear picture yet of how far the microbiome is capable of being involved in human health and disease.

 

Written by:



Sajida Abdul Kadar is a research scholar in Yenepoya Research Centre. She is currently working on Bacteria associated with Kidney stone diseases.

 

 

 

 
Drug trafficking and abuse are so real, it is lurking very close to you with a moment of carelessness, it will latch itself onto your life or that of your loved ones!

Abuse, the very term initiates widened idea of thoughts however, pertaining to physical, mental and sexual abuse. Most of us have failed to acknowledge another form of abuse, drug or substance abuse which might primarily be due to our ignorance or failing to acknowledge the existence of it. For years, many countries with help of their government and other local and world-level organizations have been staging a mighty war to eradicate drug trafficking and abuse. We often relate drug abuse to health-related problems but, the most important burden that it projects on the society is the economic burden, including law and order issues too. This clearly necessitates a special focus and reaching out to the common people extrapolating the various forms of threats that drug trafficking and abuse poses. To spread awareness, each year the international day against drug usage and trafficking has been observed on the 26th of June, an initiative started by the United Nations Office of Drug and Crime (UNODC) since 1987. A new theme is observed every year and “Listen First” is the theme for 2018, as a minute step towards a greater good. The initiative focuses on listening to the children and the youth, the main targets for drug dealers and thereby to be abused. This is framed to ensure better parenting and help the youngster to grow safe.

According to the UNODC report, about 1.9 lakh people lose their lives to substance abuse and its ill-effect doesn’t stop there. This serious issue has also been ruining the life of living, breaking hell into their lives before they meet their untimely ultimatum. Transmission of HIV, hepatitis and tuberculosis have found the easier way through sharing of needles and other tools used for intake of the drug. As per the report by the UNODC, drug trafficking on the other hand owns up to money laundering in billions across international boundaries, alteration of the socioeconomic structures, organized crimes, insurgency and terrorism. The UNDOC report, 2017 mainly focussed on the influence of money laundering into support of terrorism. Looking at the drug abuse status in India, about 7.21 crore people have been estimated to be drug addicts, a report that dates back to 2001. Since then, no follow up on the statistics have ever been made, which makes us rethink on the strategy to be employed to reach out to the common man, explaining the seriousness of the issue and getting out data straight to the current era.

Usage of drugs is termed an abuse due to the effects it has on the brain. These drugs interfere with the neuronal communication (by activating or suppressing them), alter release of neurotransmitters (chemicals that send signals) and the reception of these chemicals by the subsequent neurons. The drugs can influence a neuron by activation/suppression due to its chemical similarity with the neurotransmitter. Although these drugs share a good structural similarity with the natural neurotransmitters, the effects produced by them differ largely from that of the neurotransmitters. Marijuana and heroin are drugs that activate the neurons while amphetamine and cocaine stimulate the neurons to secrete neurotransmitters, this way each drug/substance has its own effects on the brain. Excessive and continuous usage of drugs makes one addictive which, is a resultant of the pleasure it gives to one’s senses or thoughts, in other ways the brain’s reward system and perception. Once the drug effect vanes off, the person can no longer feel better as the neuronal communication falls back to normalcy. To bring back the significant pleasure one gets addicted and depended on the drugs. Due to the rewarding (pleasurable) feeling these drugs offer, a person is inclined to experience it over and over thereby, creating a vicious cycle of drug intake. The reward system is primarily controlled by the neurotransmitter dopamine, which is released at a heightened intensity and efficiency with amphetamine usage. Numerous studies have been carried out to understand the influence of drugs on an individual’s mental, physical and social health and, brain development. The findings suggest the impairment of brain development and behaviour. Among children, those with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder are more prone towards eventual intake of drugs, as showcased by a 15 year follow up study. This sheds light on the children’s welfare, the environment they are brought-up and the help they need from parents or guardians to help them grow in a safe environment. The “Listen First” theme is thus imperative to strengthen the children to give a better tomorrow and thereby one-day, a society free of drug trafficking and abuse.

A lot of references and reports can be spread along in making one understand the importance of saying no to drugs and their trafficking. All that matters is to reach out to everyone we know, a small by-word awareness might be enough to save at least one person from falling into the deep pits of immeasurable suffering. We also have an obligation to our society and help the ones in need, the ones that are in the verge of taking a dive at the deep hell (of drugs) and to rescue the ones already drowning in it. Rehabilitation centres, psychological counselling, helping people battle depression etc. can help in sculpting the society for greater good.

Light the fire in you, towards life, not the drugs that shrink to a minuscule of nothing.

Say no to drug abuse and illicit drug trafficking.

 

Written by:

Gayathree K. is a research scholar at Center for Systems Biology and Molecular Medicine, Yenepoya Research Centre. She is working on proteomics and metabolomics analysis of neurodegenerative disorders.