Author Archives: Sci Club

Human body is a well-known niche for trillions of microbes outreaching a number ten times higher than own cells. Some of the well-studied microbial niches are the ones that are found on/inside the human body. For instance, skin, mouth, gut, lungs and respiratory tract, vagina etc. These microbes have beneficial and harmful effects and is of great interest in relation to health and disease. The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) was established in 2008 with the aim to characterize microbiome and to analyze its role in human health. June 27th, 2018 was called as “World Microbiome Day” initiated by APC Microbiome, Ireland.

On constant exposure to the environment from the time of birth over the years build up the whole microbiome. The human microbiome is comprised of numerous classes of microbes; some of which are ‘good’, some being ‘harmful’ and some are ‘essential for the good’ ones. The beneficial function of microbiome has been well established; they take part in the metabolism, building immunity, extracting energy, managing appetite, keeping the general homeostasis of the body and supplying vitamins. Multiple factors like antibiotics, diet, age, stress, human genetics and environment may alter the microbiome. The microbial imbalance is known to be associated with various diseases related to metabolism, respiration, infection, liver and gastrointestinal cancers. Not only these conditions but also the physique and mental health are associated with a healthy microbiome. Besides, their association is also found in obesity, malnutrition, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Microbiome analyses are the new phase of diagnostics that provide an advanced understanding of disease progression and treatment. In today’s world, we have been using microbial supplements in the form of probiotics. Probably in the near future, every disease associated with microbiota may have a prebiotic or probiotic treatment as one of the options. There isn’t a clear picture yet of how far the microbiome is capable of being involved in human health and disease.


Written by:

Sajida Abdul Kadar is a research scholar in Yenepoya Research Centre. She is currently working on Bacteria associated with Kidney stone diseases.




Drug trafficking and abuse are so real, it is lurking very close to you with a moment of carelessness, it will latch itself onto your life or that of your loved ones!

Abuse, the very term initiates widened idea of thoughts however, pertaining to physical, mental and sexual abuse. Most of us have failed to acknowledge another form of abuse, drug or substance abuse which might primarily be due to our ignorance or failing to acknowledge the existence of it. For years, many countries with help of their government and other local and world-level organizations have been staging a mighty war to eradicate drug trafficking and abuse. We often relate drug abuse to health-related problems but, the most important burden that it projects on the society is the economic burden, including law and order issues too. This clearly necessitates a special focus and reaching out to the common people extrapolating the various forms of threats that drug trafficking and abuse poses. To spread awareness, each year the international day against drug usage and trafficking has been observed on the 26th of June, an initiative started by the United Nations Office of Drug and Crime (UNODC) since 1987. A new theme is observed every year and “Listen First” is the theme for 2018, as a minute step towards a greater good. The initiative focuses on listening to the children and the youth, the main targets for drug dealers and thereby to be abused. This is framed to ensure better parenting and help the youngster to grow safe.

According to the UNODC report, about 1.9 lakh people lose their lives to substance abuse and its ill-effect doesn’t stop there. This serious issue has also been ruining the life of living, breaking hell into their lives before they meet their untimely ultimatum. Transmission of HIV, hepatitis and tuberculosis have found the easier way through sharing of needles and other tools used for intake of the drug. As per the report by the UNODC, drug trafficking on the other hand owns up to money laundering in billions across international boundaries, alteration of the socioeconomic structures, organized crimes, insurgency and terrorism. The UNDOC report, 2017 mainly focussed on the influence of money laundering into support of terrorism. Looking at the drug abuse status in India, about 7.21 crore people have been estimated to be drug addicts, a report that dates back to 2001. Since then, no follow up on the statistics have ever been made, which makes us rethink on the strategy to be employed to reach out to the common man, explaining the seriousness of the issue and getting out data straight to the current era.

Usage of drugs is termed an abuse due to the effects it has on the brain. These drugs interfere with the neuronal communication (by activating or suppressing them), alter release of neurotransmitters (chemicals that send signals) and the reception of these chemicals by the subsequent neurons. The drugs can influence a neuron by activation/suppression due to its chemical similarity with the neurotransmitter. Although these drugs share a good structural similarity with the natural neurotransmitters, the effects produced by them differ largely from that of the neurotransmitters. Marijuana and heroin are drugs that activate the neurons while amphetamine and cocaine stimulate the neurons to secrete neurotransmitters, this way each drug/substance has its own effects on the brain. Excessive and continuous usage of drugs makes one addictive which, is a resultant of the pleasure it gives to one’s senses or thoughts, in other ways the brain’s reward system and perception. Once the drug effect vanes off, the person can no longer feel better as the neuronal communication falls back to normalcy. To bring back the significant pleasure one gets addicted and depended on the drugs. Due to the rewarding (pleasurable) feeling these drugs offer, a person is inclined to experience it over and over thereby, creating a vicious cycle of drug intake. The reward system is primarily controlled by the neurotransmitter dopamine, which is released at a heightened intensity and efficiency with amphetamine usage. Numerous studies have been carried out to understand the influence of drugs on an individual’s mental, physical and social health and, brain development. The findings suggest the impairment of brain development and behaviour. Among children, those with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder are more prone towards eventual intake of drugs, as showcased by a 15 year follow up study. This sheds light on the children’s welfare, the environment they are brought-up and the help they need from parents or guardians to help them grow in a safe environment. The “Listen First” theme is thus imperative to strengthen the children to give a better tomorrow and thereby one-day, a society free of drug trafficking and abuse.

A lot of references and reports can be spread along in making one understand the importance of saying no to drugs and their trafficking. All that matters is to reach out to everyone we know, a small by-word awareness might be enough to save at least one person from falling into the deep pits of immeasurable suffering. We also have an obligation to our society and help the ones in need, the ones that are in the verge of taking a dive at the deep hell (of drugs) and to rescue the ones already drowning in it. Rehabilitation centres, psychological counselling, helping people battle depression etc. can help in sculpting the society for greater good.

Light the fire in you, towards life, not the drugs that shrink to a minuscule of nothing.

Say no to drug abuse and illicit drug trafficking.


Written by:

Gayathree K. is a research scholar at Center for Systems Biology and Molecular Medicine, Yenepoya Research Centre. She is working on proteomics and metabolomics analysis of neurodegenerative disorders.
The most pivotal component of a scientific study is the documentation of its findings and its communication to a global audience of fellow researchers. Most often, the modus operandi of this process is through publication of work in a scientific journal. To ensure and encourage high quality research, several journals follow a peer review process. This allows an independent body of experts to scrutinize, critique and assess the authenticity of the claims. Although not bound by a defined set of rules, the craft of communicating scientific data can be bettered through experience, critical thinking and a voracious reading habit.

A good research article is well-structured and essentially contains a few key elements. It begins with a descriptive title, an abstract that briefly describes the hypothesis and key findings of the study and an introduction that describes background literature based upon which the hypothesis is generated. The methodology section should describe in detail all the procedures used to generate the data. Often underrated, this section must be given special emphasis as it determines the reproducibility of the study/experiment. Perhaps the results and discussion section can be described as the ‘head honcho’ of the study as it receives a glaring amount of attention. Although the results are of primary importance to the study, of equal importance is the discussion. The latter must derive meaningful correlations between the hypothesis and obtained results. A cohesive narrative that strings together all the key elements highly benefits the readers. Technically speaking, it must not leave any room for ambiguity. Each sentence must be articulated in what can be described as a ‘crisp’, precise and scientifically-sound language.

The phrase ‘A picture is worth a thousand words’ is rightly said in the context of scientific writing. Pictorial representation of data in the form of photographs, graphs, workflows etc. allows the readers to quickly assimilate the information rather than simply read volumes of texts. Citing the reference(s) at appropriate positions in the text is an essential component of scientific writing. References are employed either to generate a certain hypothesis or to support claims made in the study. However, while gathering information from the available literature, the authors must be vigilant to avoid plagiarism! Software tools are available to run a plagiarism check and also rectify grammatical errors, if any.

Although writing a research article constitutes a major form of scientific writing, there also exist other forms of scientific writing such as record-keeping in a lab notebook, publishing in a scientific magazine, writing a project progress/proposal reports or even writing a blog!! The style, content, length and presentation are strikingly distinct in each case to suit a niche audience. Apart from contributing to the resume of the author, scientific writing also contributes to the generation of knowledge that may also serve as the basis for generating future hypothesis.

In short, scientific writing is akin to storytelling. After all, there is a plot (the hypothesis), a ploy (the methodology) and a pen to wield the story (the results)!!


Written by:

Saketh Kapoor is a Graduate student at Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Centre, Yenepoya (Deemed to be University).

The greatest threat to our planet is the belief that someone else will save it” - Robert Swan

India is the Global host for 2018’s World Environment Day and the theme this year is “Beat Plastic Pollution”. From pens and water bottles to replacement heart valves and aerospace mouldings, plastics are omnipresent. 500 billion plastic bags are used every year worldwide. Moreover, 50% of plastics we use are single use only. With 10 million tonnes ending up in our oceans every year, plastic pollution is the biggest threat to the environment right now.


Plastics clog the drainage system and pollute water bodies. They are responsible for the death of thousands of aquatic animals. Plastics partially breakdown to form smaller particles called as micro-plastics that are 5mm or lesser in size which are about the size of a sesame seed. These can easily enter into fishes and end up on our dinner tables. Computer models suggest that oceans hold as many as 51 trillion micro-plastic particles. WHO launched a health review after a study revealed micro-plastic content in 90% of the tested mineral water bottles collected from around the world. Microbeads, on the other hand, are tiny polyethylene plastic used as exfoliants in toothpaste and beauty products and can easily seep through water filters.


The use of microbeads in products was recently banned in the US. Laws affecting the end user is always more effective compared to those on manufacturers when it comes to plastic bags. Ireland, for example, introduced a tax for plastic bags, costing 33 cents (Rs. 26) and the usage dropped by 94% within weeks. In Rwanda (a developing country in Africa), smuggling of plastic bags can lead to imprisonment and is, therefore, plastic bag free nation since 2008. Sweden recently reached zero trash levels and generated revenue by importing plastic wastes from other countries due to their advanced recycling units.


India is emerging as a global leader in combating plastic pollution given that it has one of the highest recycling rates in the world. Indian Institute of Petroleum (IIP) a constituent of Centre for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) has developed a unique process that converts plastic bags to petroleum. This project is in the process of being commercialized. Rudra Environmental solutions in Pune has a setup that converts a ton of plastic cans to 600 litres of fuel, 20-25% synthetic gases and 5-10% residual char that could be used as road fillers. Innovations like these are essential for recycling of plastics and needs to be given much needed attention and funding by the Government. On a ground level, we can do our bit by opting alternatives of plastics in our daily lives.

Conservation over convenience is the only way to save our planet as we know it.


Written by:

Akhila M.P. is a research scholar in Yenepoya Research Centre. She is working on angiogenesis inhibition in Glioma.







The third week of May 2018 started with a panic across the entire Kerala state because of the Nipah virus (NiV) outbreak which claimed 11 lives including a nurse who was attending one of the possible NiV infected patients at the local hospital. The family of the nurse decided to cremate her body instead of burying despite being a Christian to stop the spread of the deadly virus. Since then the state government is trying to make all the necessary arrangements to tackle the panic which is widespread across the state. The state government has also released emergency funds to restrict the virus outbreak and a team from National Centre for Disease Control (NCDS) is closely monitoring the outspread of the disease.


According to the World Health Organization (WHO), NiV infection is a newly emerging zoonosis with 70% mortality rate. Fruit bats are the natural host of NiV which belongs to Pteropodidae family, Pteropus genus. There are also intermediate hosts such as plants and animals consumption of which spreads the disease among humans. The virus can be transmitted by consuming fruits eaten by infected bats and birds. Direct contact with infected bats, pigs and humans also lead to transmission of NiV.


The first cases of NiV infections were reported from the state of Perak in West Malaysia in September 1998 which had a major industry of pig farming. This lead to the culling of around 1.1 million pigs to control the outbreak. Later, the outbreak was reported in Bangladesh in almost every year from 2001 to 2013. In India, two outbreaks were reported in the eastern state of West Bengal, in 2001 and 2007 where the disease was contracted by consuming raw date palm sap contaminated by infected fruit bats urine or saliva. Initial studies have shown that NiV was reacting to the antibodies against the Hendra virus, however, later the viral genome was sequenced and showed around 20% difference from the Hendra virus.


The incubation time of NiV is 5-14 days and symptoms usually appear 3-14 days of exposure. The major symptoms of the infection are fever, dizziness, headache, and vomiting that often leads to encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and coma. NiV also causes infection in pigs and other domestic animals. As of now, there is no vaccine available to treat NiV infection. Patients are generally treated by intensive supportive care.


Various environmentalists have claimed that the NiV was present in the bats for centuries, however, the major concern is that how the infection has been spread only recently. The rapid urbanization, as well as intervention of humans into the bat-inhabited regions, could possibly be one of the reasons of the NiV emergence. During the 2007 outbreak in West Bengal, it was reported by the healthcare workers that the horde of bats was found to be hanging from the trees around the patient’s residence which suggested the transmission of the virus from bats to humans.


Since there are limited treatment options, the focus should be on the prevention of NiV infection. People should be cautioned about not to consume the fruits that have fallen on to the fields especially in those areas which are inhabited by bats. Drinking of toddy brewed in open containers near palm trees should be avoided. Domestic animals which can also be carriers of NiV should be kept indoors since they can consume the partially eaten fruits often dropped by fruit bats. Maintain a distance from the patients so as to avoid ingestion of droplets when they cough or sneeze and also avoid sharing of food, bed, and clothes. The recent source of an outbreak in Kerala could be attributed to the bats which had taken shelter in a well of one of the diseased patient. So one should avoid drinking water contaminated by the excrements of pigs and bats. And more importantly, healthcare workers who are in close proximity should wear proper gloves and masks while treating patients with NiV infections.


Written by:

Saketh Kapoor is a Graduate student at Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Centre, Yenepoya (Deemed to be University).

“Technology and social media have brought power back to the people” - Mark McKinnon


In this era of technology telecommunication services are almost omnipresent. May 17th of each year is celebrated as the World Telecommunication Day by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) to raise awareness on the possibilities of use of Information and Communication Technology (which includes the Internet). The theme for World Telecommunications Day for this year as proposed by the ITU and is “Enabling the positive use of artificial intelligence for all”.


Artificial Intelligence (AI) is nothing new to the world. Its origin can be traced back to the Second World War era which saw Allen Turing’s Turing machine or Turing test as the first serious proposal introducing the idea of AI. AI is all about training a machine to learn, analyse, think and make a decision like humans albeit at a far greater speed. This teaching-learning process resembles the ancient school of Indian materialism called Charvaka. These teaching-learning processes will be executed using machine learning (ML) and deep learning algorithms. Even though most of the people think that ML (supervised and unsupervised learning) and AI are the same; they are different in that, the ML is an instrument in the symphony of AI. The AI is becoming increasingly popular and permeating into many diverse and often complicated fields.


AI is already being used in many real life scenarios like security surveillance, music and movie recommendation services, online customer support, purchase prediction, fraud detection, video games, smart cars and a lot more. AI-based diagnostic or pre-diagnosis tools and research equipment are also being introduced to medical research. However, the Indian scenario with respect AI research and applications are meagre when compared to the other countries in the world.


According to the study of Analytics India Magazine conducted in 2017, including data analytics or data science industries, More than 800 companies in India claim to work on AI in some form or the other. However, India accounts for just 6% of global AI companies. Scopus Analysis shows, about 70% of the AI research is conducted by non-Indian companies headquartered in India. The Google and the IBM have published almost 62% of all industry research publications, while Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) is the only Indian company appearing in the top 10 with 13% of all publications.


To give a boost to the AI research, Govt. of India has started the first AI research institute named Wadhwani AI in Mumbai. This institute will focus on ways to harness the power of AI to solve deep-rooted problems in education, healthcare, agriculture and infrastructure and thereby, accelerate social development.


With the tremendous potential that this technology holds, it is for us to encourage and adapt to it in a good way to make our day-to-day life better.


Written by:

Parameshwar R. Hegde is a research scholar in Yenepoya Research Centre. He is working on Artificial Intelligence. Currently, he is working on "Diagnosis of skin disease using image features".



"What you have learned is a mere handful; What you haven't learned is the size of the world"    - Avvaiyar

Malaria is a major global mosquito-borne infectious disease. According to WHO’s World Malaria Report 2017; it was responsible for nearly 445,000 deaths. With 260 million new cases reported in 2016; its incidence has seen an increase of 5 million cases from over 2015. India is one of 15 countries in the world to have the highest cases of malaria and deaths due to it. According to National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), 88,911 new cases have been reported till now in India. WHO reports that Malaria occurs in much of the tropical and subtropical regions of 91 countries and areas with malaria transmission. Malaria is caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium, and these parasites are transmitted only by the females of approximately 460 Anopheles species. However, only 30 - 40 species transmit malaria to humans by the bite of infected Anopheles mosquitoes.

Five different species of Plasmodium that can cause malaria in humans are Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium knowlesi. Among these; P. falciparum and P. vivax cause the highest mortality. P. vivax causes significant morbidity and mortality especially in children and poses unique challenges for malaria control and elimination. The 48-hour asexual replication cycle in the bloodstream is responsible for the mortality and morbidity due to malaria. Severe cases and deaths due to P. vivax have been reported from all endemic regions.  Mangaluru of Dakshina Kannada district is an endemic region of malaria. In 2015 Dr Prakash, state nodal officer declared that Mangaluru is a malarial capital of Karnataka and the contribution of this district to the total malaria cases reported in Karnataka is a whopping 57%. 88% of these cases are reported in Mangaluru city alone as per the recent data of 2014 though there was a slight decline in malarial incidence in 2018.

Until now, there is no vaccine against malaria but Primaquine is used for treating P. vivax liver stages (hypnozoites and schizonts). Primaquine has a unique and powerful role in the prevention and cure of malaria. It is the only FDA licensed drug that can destroy all liver stages of the parasite. However, it can produce serious side-effects like hemolytic crisis which requires the screening of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency before administering the drug.

An alternative way of reducing the burden of malaria would be the development of an effective vaccine to target pre-erythrocytic stages of malaria; the stage of infection that involves only a few parasites and is completely asymptomatic. Such vaccine can also prevent relapsing infections. One of the most effective experimental vaccination generated by irradiation strategy against P. falciparum and P. vivax infection is the use of live attenuated sporozoites. These are effective in inducing complete immune protection by their ability to mount humoral and cellular immune responses against the sporozoite and the liver stage of the parasite. This method of vaccination was recently tested against P.vivax and it showed remarkable protective efficacy in rodent model. Thus, identifying and understanding the key processes like regulation of structure and function of Plasmodium species by proteins can provide us important insights about potential targets for anti-malarial drug discovery.


Written by:

Rex D. A. B. is a graduate student at CSBMM, Yenepoya Research Centre. Apart from spending most of his time in delineating the role of IL-33 and IL-1 beta signaling pathways, he is an avid reviewer in International Journal of Cardiology – Elsevier, OMICS and PubMed indexed journals.